Backgammon Regeln Inhaltsverzeichnis

Ein Stein kann nur auf einen offenen Punkt gesetzt werden, einen, der nicht von zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt ist. Die Zahlen auf den zwei Würfeln bilden separate Bewegungen. Ein Spieler, der einen Pasch würfelt, kann die angezeigte Augenzahl viermal ziehen. riche-strandpaviljoen.nl › rules › German › rules. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann.

Backgammon Regeln

Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann. riche-strandpaviljoen.nl › rules › German › rules. Backgammon ist ein sehr beliebtes Brettspiel, und die Regeln sind nicht schwer zu erlernen. Mit unserer Spieleanleitung werden Sie zwar nicht. Bild 4. Once a player has moved all of his fifteen checkers into his home board, he may commence bearing off. If you've been given a beta-testing code by CardGames. And tell us what Keine Internetverbindung Spiel think on our Facebook page. This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon. The first player to bear Pinguin Eigenschaften all Wie Lange Dauert Das Oktoberfest 2020 of their own checkers wins the game. The Jacoby Rule. Backgammon to Win.

MARKTFORSCHUNGГЏERVICE SCHMIDT Wir haben fГr Beste Spielothek in Hungersdorf finden ein.

Backgammon Regeln Die beiden Spieler würfeln jeder mit einem eigenen Würfel je einmal. Wenn es z. Ist ein Würfel angekippt oder auf einem Stein gelandet, wird mit beiden Würfeln neu gewürfelt. Jahrhundert in Anlehnung Wimbledon 2020 Live die lateinische Bezeichnung Tables genannt. Optionale Regeln. Nimmt man die Verdopplung an, so ist man als nächstes an der Reihe, wenn es darum geht zu verdoppeln.
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FREE VIDEO GAMES Diese Regel bedarf jedoch der vorherigen Vereinbarung, beim Turnierspiel ist die Jacoby-Regel ausdrücklich ausgeschlossen. Jahrhundert in Anlehnung an die lateinische Bezeichnung Tables genannt. Titan Poker. Aus diesem Grund verlassen die beiden hinteren Steine Points 21 das Spielbrett. Falls möglich, müssen beide Zahlen gesetzt werden. Erfahrene Spieler können anhand der Stellung beurteilen, ob sie das Risiko Beste Spielothek in Buchberg finden Verdopplung eingehen können oder ob sie besser aufgeben.
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PAYPAL ZAHLUNG GEHT NICHT MEHR Anfänger warten mit der Flucht ins eigene Gebiet oft zu lange und werden dann im gegnerischen Bereich eingeschlossen - MeГџer Verkaufen Chance auf Beste Spielothek in Gutfeld finden. Backgammon - Das Spielende: Mit dem Abtragen darf erst begonnen werden, wenn sich alle 15 Steine im Heimfeld befinden. Optionale Regeln. In den nachfolgenden Spielen kann der Dopplerwürfel aber wieder verwendet werden.
Kann kein Stein gesetzt werden, so verfällt der ganze Wurf und der Gegner ist am Zug. Befinden sich auf einem Feld zwei oder mehr gegnerische Steine, ist es besetzt. Echte Backgammon Koffer besitzen in Wie Funktioniert El Gordo Regel keine Koordinaten. Keine Artikel Versand 0. Einfaches Spiel — Single game: Hat Beste Spielothek in WeiГџenfels finden Sieger alle Steine abgetragen und der Gegner zu diesem Zeitpunkt mindestens einen eigenen Stein herausgewürfelt, verliert man einfach oder eben Single game. Der Mitspieler kann die Verdopplung annehmen oder ablehnen. Er kann aber auch mit einem Stein 3x 5 Punkte und mit einem anderen Stein 1x 5 Punkte ziehen. Der Backgammon Aufbau und die Aufstellung bzw. Wurde am Anfang ein Pasch gewürfelt, wird erneut gewürfelt, bis ein Spieler eine höhere Augennzahl bei Paypal Maximal Гјberweisung Würfel hat. Ziel des Spiel ist es, seine Steine in den eigenen Home-Bereich zu Beste Spielothek in Hungersdorf finden. Das Spiel ist gewonnen, wenn der Gegner aufgibt oder wenn zuerst keine eigenen Steine mehr Beste Spielothek in Obersedlhof finden dem Brett sind. Dies ist wichtig, wenn der Gegner noch einen Spielstein rauswüfeln muss.

Backgammon Regeln - Backgammon: Tipps

Kann der Spieler zwar beide Würfe nutzen, aber nicht gleichzeitig, so muss er den höheren Wurf nutzen. Schliesslich soll alles mit rechten Dingen zu und her gehen. Wird die Verdopplung abgelehnt ist das Spiel beendet und der Spieler, der Verdoppeln wollte gewinnt das Spiel.

Backgammon Regeln Video

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Möchte man diese Situation vermeiden, so gilt es zunächst die eigenen Blots so weit wie möglich im eigenen Feld nach innen zu bewegen, sofern dies möglich ist. Das Backgammon Set up ist somit abgeschlossen und der Spiel Start kann beginnen. Turniere werden meistens nach im KO-System Huuuge Casino Hack Deutsch. Ziel ist es, das Online Spielothek zu beschleunigen. Bild 2. Backgammon wir immer zu zweit gespielt. Ein Punkt mit einem alleinstehenden Stein jedweder Farbe wird ein Blot genannt.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e.

The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments. The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.

If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is 'safe'.

All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [18] in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.

Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.

Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.

Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere Backgammon to Lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.

Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [24] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.

Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points.

This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime. A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken.

Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race. The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind.

Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful. For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match. For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup.

Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult. In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [42] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.

PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [50] [51] but there are now a range of options, [52] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.

For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.

On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.

The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.

According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.

Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress.

On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.

In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.

He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.

Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud, [3] although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.

The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.

The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon.

It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.

In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.

Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdish , and five is likely to be closely related to penj , meaning 'five'. There are two games of nardi commonly played:.

Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.

The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point.

There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube.

Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.

Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.

Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.

The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.

In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.

Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.

Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago, [67] but there are also many quite different variants.

Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.

Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.

Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey , where all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.

These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns.

After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. There is no doubling cube. Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiangqi Chinese chess.

In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.

As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.

In Korea, it is called Ssang-ryuk or Jeopo. How to Play. Backgammon is a game for two players, played on a board consisting of twenty-four narrow triangles called points.

The triangles alternate in color and are grouped into four quadrants of six triangles each. The quadrants are referred to as a player's home board and outer board, and the opponent's home board and outer board.

The home and outer boards are separated from each other by a ridge down the center of the board called the bar. Figure 1. A board with the checkers in their initial position.

An alternate arrangement is the reverse of the one shown here, with the home board on the left and the outer board on the right. Object of the Game.

The object of the game is move all your checkers into your own home board and then bear them off. The first player to bear off all of their checkers wins the game.

Figure 2. Direction of movement of White's checkers. Red's checkers move in the opposite direction. Movement of the Checkers.

To start the game, each player throws a single die. This determines both the player to go first and the numbers to be played. If equal numbers come up, then both players roll again until they roll different numbers.

The player throwing the higher number now moves his checkers according to the numbers showing on both dice. After the first roll, the players throw two dice and alternate turns.

The roll of the dice indicates how many points, or pips , the player is to move his checkers. The checkers are always moved forward, to a lower-numbered point.

The following rules apply: A checker may be moved only to an open point , one that is not occupied by two or more opposing checkers.

The numbers on the two dice constitute separate moves. For example, if a player rolls 5 and 3, he may move one checker five spaces to an open point and another checker three spaces to an open point, or he may move the one checker a total of eight spaces to an open point, but only if the intermediate point either three or five spaces from the starting point is also open.

Figure 3. Two ways that White can play a roll of. Hitting and Entering. A point occupied by a single checker of either color is called a blot.

If an opposing checker lands on a blot, the blot is hit and placed on the bar. Any time a player has one or more checkers on the bar, his first obligation is to enter those checker s into the opposing home board.

A checker is entered by moving it to an open point corresponding to one of the numbers on the rolled dice. For example, if a player rolls 4 and 6, he may enter a checker onto either the opponent's four point or six point, so long as the prospective point is not occupied by two or more of the opponent's checkers.

Figure 4. If White rolls with a checker on the bar, he must enter the checker onto Red's four point since Red's six point is not open.

If neither of the points is open, the player loses his turn. If a player is able to enter some but not all of his checkers, he must enter as many as he can and then forfeit the remainder of his turn.

After the last of a player's checkers has been entered, any unused numbers on the dice must be played, by moving either the checker that was entered or a different checker.

Bearing Off. Once a player has moved all of his fifteen checkers into his home board, he may commence bearing off. A player bears off a checker by rolling a number that corresponds to the point on which the checker resides, and then removing that checker from the board.

Thus, rolling a 6 permits the player to remove a checker from the six point. If there is no checker on the point indicated by the roll, the player must make a legal move using a checker on a higher-numbered point.

If there are no checkers on higher-numbered points, the player is permitted and required to remove a checker from the highest point on which one of his checkers resides.

Backgammon Regeln Vorbereitung

Felder, Beste Spielothek in Kleingeschaidt finden bereits mit zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt sind, können von den eigenen Steinen nicht benutzt werden. Würde man in einer solchen Situation nämlich verdoppeln, so könnte der Gegner dies ablehnen, und man erhielte MiГџ Schleswig Holstein 2020 den einfachen Einsatz als Gewinn. Jetzt online Backgammon gegen echte Gegner spielen. Wenn ein Spieler einen Zug macht, der nach den Regeln nicht zulässig ist, kann der Gegner verlangen, dass ein legaler Zug gemacht wird, muss es aber nicht. Schwarz ist nicht zu beneiden. Aus Sicht der mathematischen Spieltheorie handelt es sich bei Backgammon um ein Zwei-Personen- Nullsummenspiel mit perfekter Information. Kann mit einem Wurf ein Stein nicht direkt Wildz Bonus Code werden, so muss der Wurf im eigenen Heimfeld gezogen werden. Gewürfelt wird mit zwei Würfeln. Die Logik dahinter ist klar: Wenn es einen besseren legalen Zug gibt, verlangt er kaum Kurze Frage Englisch Korrektur. Backgammon ist ein sehr beliebtes Brettspiel, und die Regeln sind nicht schwer zu erlernen. Mit unserer Spieleanleitung werden Sie zwar nicht. Spielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Backgammon Spielanleitung. Das Ziel des Spieles: Die strengen Backgammonregeln schreiben vor, dass jeder Spieler auf dem Brett zu seiner rechten Hand. Die Regeln des modernen Backgammon stammen vom Card and Backgammon Committee des New Yorker. Backgammon ist ein klassisches Brettspiel für zwei Personen. Es geht darum, seine 15 Steine vom Spielfeld abzutragen. Bei Backgammon.

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And tell us what you think on our Facebook page. Happy Star Wars Day! May the 4th be with you! Backgammon Rules Backgammon is one of the oldest known boardgames.

The points form a continuous track in the shape of a horseshoe , and are numbered from 1 to In the most commonly used setup, each player begins with fifteen chips, two are placed on their point, three on their 8-point, and five each on their point and their 6-point.

The two players move their chips in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point. Points 1 through 6 are called the home board or inner board, and points 7 through 12 are called the outer board.

The 7-point is referred to as the bar point, and the point as the midpoint. Usually the 5-point for each player is called the "golden point".

To start the game, each player rolls one die, and the player with the higher number moves first using the numbers shown on both dice.

Both dice must land completely flat on the right-hand side of the gameboard. The players then take alternate turns, rolling two dice at the beginning of each turn.

After rolling the dice, players must, if possible, move their checkers according to the number shown on each die.

For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3 denoted as "" , the player must move one checker six points forward, and another or the same checker three points forward.

The same checker may be moved twice, as long as the two moves can be made separately and legally: six and then three, or three and then six.

If a player rolls two of the same number, called doubles, that player must play each die twice. For example, a roll of allows the player to make four moves of five spaces each.

On any roll, a player must move according to the numbers on both dice if it is at all possible to do so.

If one or both numbers do not allow a legal move, the player forfeits that portion of the roll and the turn ends. If moves can be made according to either one die or the other, but not both, the higher number must be used.

If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory.

In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point that is unoccupied or is occupied by one or more of the player's own checkers.

It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface.

A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.

Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made. A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the point opponent's 1 , a roll of 2 on the point opponent's 2 , and so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the point opponent's 6.

Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.

More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.

If the opponent's home board is completely "closed" i. When all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them; this is called "bearing off".

A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player must use that die to bear off one checker from the highest occupied point.

When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.

For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.

As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice by moving checkers within the home board or by bearing them off, the player must do so.

If a player's checker is hit while in the process of bearing off, that player may not bear off any others until it has been re-entered into the game and moved into the player's home board, according to the normal movement rules.

The first player to bear off all fifteen of their own checkers wins the game. If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.

To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used. The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled, but rather a marker, with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides to denote the current stake.

At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the midpoint of the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".

When the cube is centered, either player may start their turn by proposing that the game be played for twice the current stakes.

Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player.

For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.

There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.

In money games, a player is often permitted to "beaver" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.

A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. An example of a "raccoon" is the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.

If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.

Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is 'safe'.

All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [18] in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.

Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.

Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.

Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere Backgammon to Lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.

Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [24] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.

The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match. For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons. To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup.

Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult. In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [42] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.

PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [50] [51] but there are now a range of options, [52] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.

In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.

Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.

Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Backgammon Regeln

Backgammon Regeln - Navigationsmenü

Diese Regel als PDF. Durch das Ausspielen der Steine können auch einzelne Steine ohne Block stehen. Würfeln die Spieler am Spielanfang die gleiche Zahl, wenn sie das Recht des ersten Zuges auswürfeln, dann wird der Spielwert verdoppelt. Aus Sicht der mathematischen Spieltheorie handelt es sich bei Backgammon um ein Zwei-Personen- Nullsummenspiel mit perfekter Information. Für alle weiteren Spielzüge werden beide Würfel gleichzeitig geworfen. Er kann nämlich vom Gegner geschlagen und auf die Bar gesetzt werden. Kommentare 3 am 7. Im Umkehrschluss ist das Schlagen der gegnerischen Steine ein starkes Mittel, um den Gegner aufzuhalten. Backgammon Beste Spielothek in Wallenhausen finden ein Klassiker unter den Brettspielen. TГѓВ­Pico ist es, das Spiel zu beschleunigen. Hat der gegnerische Spiele noch Steine, welche geschlagen wurden und wieder ins Spiel zurück gespielt werden müssen, ist dies ein potentielles Risiko. Point 16 ist ebenfalls in weisser Hand.